Biological Risk Factors of Hypertention

Mrs. Johnson, a 72-year-old African American woman, was diagnosed with primary hypertension 22 years ago. As she has already retired after working for about 40 years, she spends much of her time at home caring for her husband, who was recently diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Mrs. Johnson has reported that she feels overwhelmed and exhausted, which could signify an underlying health condition. She recently missed her hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine doses because she is preoccupied with her husband’s home care needs. A critical review of Mrs. Johnson’s history and latest developments shows that she is highly exposed to hypertension risk factors, a situation that requires a keen adherence to nursing guidelines.

Mrs. Johnson has already attained a significantly vulnerable age when most people develop various health conditions, including hypertension. As she is excessively preoccupied with her ailing husband, the client’s current home care role could be subjecting her to stress, which is a major hypertension risk factor. A review of her family background and history shows that she could be exposed to biological risk factors of this condition. Her father had high blood pressure (HBP) problems, whereas the grandfather succumbed to a stroke when he was 63 years old. This information is a clear pointer that the patient has a significantly high risk of developing blood pressure problems, particularly because she is already aged and due to exposure to stressful conditions.

The fact that Mrs. Johnson is an African American cannot be overlooked, considering that hypertension is reportedly common among black Americans. Zilbermint et al. (2019) note that previous studies show the prevalence of hypertension among black communities as 39.1%, which is significantly high compared to 28.5% for the majority non-Hispanic whites. Nevertheless, Mrs. Johnson has lately skipped the medication prescribed for the regulation of her condition. She has been on two types of drugs: Hydrochlorothiazide, a prescription used to treat and regulate blood pressure, and amlodipine, which prevents heart attacks, kidney problems, and strokes (Zilbermint et al., 2019). These prescriptions might have been so effective on her that she now takes them for granted. Skipping the doses exposes her to a greater risk of developing high blood pressure complications, considering that she has already been diagnosed with primary hypertension.

Any nurse practitioner attending Mrs. Johnson should underscore the need to heed to antihypertensive drugs. Particularly, emphasis must be on the message that skipping doses is bound to make the situation worse for both the patient and her husband. Arising concerns, other than just the fact that the patient has lately ignored prescriptions, include the level of exposure to stress. Besides, the revelation that she has skipped doses due to preoccupation with her sick husband is a clear pointer that she is becoming nervous and stressed. She earlier reported that she felt overwhelmed, which translates to a confession of mounding stress. Besides, her family history shows she is exposed to biological risk factors of the disease. These revelations should be a major cause of concern for any practical nurse attending Mrs. Johnson, as she is seemingly exposed to all HBP risk factors possible.

In overview, Mrs. Johnson is exposed to a myriad of hypertension risk factors. As an African American from a family with a history of HBP complications, she is exposed to biological risk factors. Nonetheless, she is already aged and possibly stressed because her husband has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. The overwhelming role of caring for her sick husband has seen her skip doses. Mrs. Johnson needs support and guidance to adhere to her antihypertensive prescriptions because her health is at a critical stage.


Zilbermint, M., Hannah-Shmouni, F., & Stratakis, C. A. (2019). Genetics of hypertension in African Americans and others of African descent. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(5), 1081. Web.

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