Risk factors to a child’s education can come in different forms; the first can come from the child and thus referred to as child-based risk factors. These risk factors are mainly linked to the cognitive development of the child. Such causes may include severe cognitive impairments; hearing difficulties; early language impairment and Attention shortfalls (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Most of the child-based risk factors for reading difficulties are physical conditions that may not be corrected. For instance, a child suffering from severe cognitive deficiencies may always show difficulties in reading no matter the interventions are undertaken. Secondly, the risk factors can be occasioned by the school or institution of learning.
Such risk factors are often designated School-based risk factors and this may include the following; Inadequate learner management practices; lack of proper rules on student’s engagement in drug use; When drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, and others are easily accessible from the school premises; Poor motivational factors, for instance, failure to reward students that are performing exemplary; unqualified or inadequate teaching staff and a general lack of academic focus (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). School-based risk factors are the easiest to manage. The schools that show the above-outlined risk factors should come up with proper policies that are able to provide optimal learning conditions for their students. Family-based risk factors for poor academic performance may include the following; Conflicts in the family and especially domestic violence; lack of family bonding; poor social habits leading to family isolation; the prevalence of general stressful conditions; poor family rules and guidance that may result in drug use; positive attitudes towards social ills such as drug use; lack of proper framework for child supervision and discipline (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).
In conclusion, there should be a policy in place that would stipulate the conduct of all persons within the school including the teaching and non-teaching staff. However, regulatory agencies such as education boards should ensure that schools enforce the laid down rules that are necessary for the creation of a proper learning environment. Family-based risk factors can be prevented by doing the following; seeking counseling services in cases of family conflicts, the establishment of proper family rules to guide the conduct of members, especially children, proper child supervision, and development of good social skills through indulgence in community activities to prevent family isolation (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). In the above analysis, it has been shown that with proper intervention the risk factors that predispose children to the development of poor reading habits can be prevented and thus boost literacy levels in the country. Thus all the relevant stakeholders should put their energies together to ensure that children receive the best from learning.
Snow, C. E., Burns, M., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. New York: National Academy Press.