Educational Activities Plan for Diabetic Ketoacidosis Patient

The education plan described in this essay details the proposed educational activities that a diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) patient will undergo over a period of 3 days. The patient should attend two sessions every day for the first two days and one session on the last day.

Objectives of the Education Plan

  1. Determination of the patient’s educational needs
  2. A description of the cause, symptoms and treatment of DKA
  3. Illustration of the patient’s role in managing DKA through self-evaluation of blood sugar and ketone levels
  4. Development of a dietary plan to minimize the development of both acute and chronic complications
  5. Explanation of the management of the patient’s psychological and socioeconomic welfare due to DKA-related complications

Program Outline

  • Day 1: On this day, the educator will interact with the patient, conduct a preliminary physical examination, establish the patient’s level of knowledge on DKA and commence the day’s educational activities.

    • Morning session (9:00 am- 12:30 pm)

      • Discussion of the goals of education on DKA
      • Introduction to the pathology and physiology of DKA
    • Afternoon Session (2:00 pm -4:00 pm)

      • Discussion of the cause and symptoms of DKA
      • Description of the treatment measures that suit either mild or severe DKA
      • Explanation of the functions of various treatment methods in regulating body metabolisms
  • Day 2: On this day, the educator will engage the patient on procedures for checking his blood sugar and ketone levels, and introduce a dietary plan for managing DKA.

    • Morning session (8:00 am -12:00 pm)

      • Educating the patient on using a glucose meter to determine their blood sugar levels
      • Educating the patient on performing a PH test on their urine to establish ketone levels
    • Afternoon session (2:00 pm- 4:00 pm)

      • Introduction to weight management
      • Introduction to low carbohydrate diets
      • Introduction to sugar free fluids
      • Recommendation on sodium and potassium intake
  • Day 3: The last day of the DKA education will involve counseling the patient to help boost his optimism regarding his socioeconomic welfare, and eliminate the uncertainty about his future with DKA. The session will require the patient to bring along at least two members of his family.

    • Morning session (8:00am -12:00 pm)

      • Promoting acceptance as a way of coping with DKA
      • Emphasizing the role of the family in supporting DKA patients

Nutritional needs for a DKA patient

Nursing implementations in response to a DKA patient’s nutritional needs focus on ascertaining the dietary program of the patient to identify anomalies that necessitate therapeutic intervention.

The dietary pattern of the patient should concur to the nutritional recommendations of low carbohydrates from vegetables, fruits and whole grains. The diet should be such that the daily intake of carbohydrates does not exceed 130 grams/day (LeRoith et al., 2004).

Monitoring the carbohydrate intake using methods such as carbohydrate counting will ensure that the patient’s diet does not induce glycemic imbalance.

Recommendation for the substitution of carbohydrates with foods rich in sucrose is essential in ensuring the effectiveness of insulin and other medications meant to lower the patient’s glucose level.

Incorporation of foods with high fiber content will help to minimize symptoms such as abdominal pain and vomiting of undigested foods. Gastric motility is a common occurrence in DKA patients due to electrolyte disturbances (Mogensen, 2007).

The provision of sugar-free fluids containing essential nutrients and electrolytes will help to reverse the deterioration in a patient’s bowel functions.

References

LeRoith, D., Taylor, S., & Olefsky, J. (2004). Diabetes mellitus a fundamental and clinical text (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mogensen, C. (2007). Pharmacotherapy of diabetes new developments : improving life.

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