Explain Two Tunnelling Protocols Computer Science Essay

This study will sketch the grounds why tunnelling is used and describe two of the most normally used tunnelling protocols. This study aims to inform why they have been developed and why 1 might be preferred over the other.

In this study, I will be chiefly concentrating on

Explain web burrowing

Briefly describe the grounds for burrowing

Explain two tunnelling protocols

Compare the strengths and failings of the two tunnelling protocols

Burrowing allows oneA web to direct its informations through another web ‘s connexions ; for illustration the cyberspace.

Tunnels are used to make a safe and unafraid web connexion between a private web and a distant host. This enables a distant user to derive entree to resources on their private web.

It does this by utilizing burrowing protocols ; this is where a package based on one protocol is encapsulated in a 2nd package based on whatever protocol is needed in order for it to go through the intermediary web.

In consequence the, the 2nd negligee ‘insulates ‘ the original package and creates the semblance of a tunnel. Burrowing engineering can be implemented utilizing a Layer 2 or Layer 3 burrowing protocol.

In existent life term, burrowing is compared to ‘encapsulating ‘ a present ( original package ) in a box ( 2nd negligee ) for bringing through the postal service.

PPTP eliminates the demand for expensive, leased-line or private enterprise-dedicated communicating

waiters because you can utilize PPTP over PSTN lines. PPTP simplifies and reduces the cost of deploying an enterprise-wide, distant entree solution for remote or nomadic users because it provides secure and encrypted communications over public telephone lines and the Internet

The Point to Indicate Tunneling Protocol ( PPTP ) was developed by PPTP Forum.

This was a group of companies that included Microsoft ; Ascend, US Robotics and. 3Com.PPTP is one of the most normally implemented tunnelling protocols. This is chiefly due to the fact that it ‘s supported by Windowss clients and it ‘s reasonably simple to configure and maintain.A PPTP has the capacity to supply on-demand, multiprotocol for Virtual private webs using public webs for case the Internet.

( King, 27/2/2013 )

PPTP is an enlargement of the Point-to-Point protocol ( PPP ) RFC 1661.

PPTP works at the datalink bed of the OSI theoretical account.

There is no encoding with PPTP as it merely establishes the tunnel.

PPTP is an extension of the Internet standard Point-to-Point protocol ( PPP ) , the nexus bed protocol used to convey IP packages over consecutive links.

The hallmark used by PPTP is the same as PPP ( PAP, SPAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP v.1/v.2 and EAP ) .

A PPTP encrypted utilizing Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption ( MPPE ) protocol to make a secure VPN. PPTP has comparatively low operating expense, thisA doing it faster than some other VPN methods.

Structure of a PPTP Packet Containing an IP Datagram

Structure of PPTP Packet Containing IP Datagram

Most old exposures in PPTP are fixed these yearss and you can unite it with EAP to heighten it to necessitate certifications as good.

One advantage of utilizing PPTP is that there is no demand for a certification substructure. However EAP does utilize digital certifications for common hallmark ( both client and waiter ) and higher security.

How plants: A PPTP tunnel is instantiated by communicating to the equal on TCP port 1723. This TCP connexion is so used to originate and pull off as 2nd GRE ( generic routing encapsulation ) tunnel to the same equal.

Port/protocol: A 1723 TCP and protocol GRE

User Authentication Protocol: EAP-TLS or MS-CHAPA v2

Encoding method: A MPPE ( Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption )

Encoding Strength: A MPPE 40 and 128 spot

The Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol ( L2TP ) was developed in cooperation betweenA CiscoA and Microsoft to unite characteristics of PPTP with those of Cisco ‘s proprietary Layer 2 Forwarding ( L2F ) protocol.L2TP ( Layer Two Tunnelling Protocol ) supports non-TCP/IP clients and protocols ( such as Frame Relay, ATM and SONET ) .

L2TP does non supply any encoding or confidentiality by itself.A It relies on an encoding protocol that it passes within the tunnel to supply privateness. Nowadays L2TP connectionsA do non negociate the usage of PPP encoding through Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption ( MPPE ) . Alternatively, encoding is providedA through the usage of the Internet Protocol securityA ( IPSec ) Encapsulating Security Payload ( ESP ) heading and trailer.A It is besides of import to observe that IPsec is more resource intensive than PPTP, therefore the operating expense with a L2TP solution is higher than PPTP.

Structure of an L2TP Packet Containing an IP Datagram

Structure of L2TP Packet Containing an IP Datagram

Port: A 1701 UDP

User Authentication Protocol: A EAP-TLS or MS-CHAP v2

* In add-on to supplying computer-level hallmark, IPSec provides end-to-end encoding for informations that passes between the sending and having nodes.

Encoding: A IPSec

Encoding Strength: A Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) 256, AES 192, AES 128, and 3DES encoding algorithms


L2TP/IPSec and PPTP are similar in the undermentioned ways:

supply a logical conveyance mechanism to direct PPP warheads ;

supply tunneling or encapsulation so that PPP warheads based on any protocol can be sent across an IP web ;

rely on the PPP connexion procedure to execute user hallmark and protocol constellation.

Some facts about PPTP:

+A PPTPA easy to deploy

+A PPTPA useA TCP, this dependable solution allow to retransmit lost packages

+A PPTPA support

-A PPTPA less secure with MPPE ( up to 128 spot )

-A dataA encryptionA begins after the PPP connexion procedure ( and, hence, PPP hallmark ) is completed

-A PPTPA connexions require merely user-level hallmark through a PPP-based hallmark protocol

Some facts about L2TP ( over IPsec ) :

+A L2TP/IPSecA information encoding begins before the PPP connexion procedure

+A L2TP/IPSecA connexions use the AES ( up to 256bit ) or DESUup to three 56-bit keys )

+ L2TP/IPSecA connexions provide stronger hallmark by necessitating both computer-level hallmark through certifications and user-level hallmark through a PPP hallmark protocol

+ L2TPA useA UDP. It is a faster, but less dependable, because it does non retransmit lost packages, is normally used in real-time Internet communications

+ L2TPA moreA ” firewall friendly ” A than PPTP – a important advantage for an extranet protocol due to most firewalls do non back up GRE

-A L2TPA require certification substructure for publishing computing machine certifications

There ‘s no clear victor, but PPTP is older, A more light-weight, A plants in most instances and clients are readily pre-installed, giving it an advantage in usually being really easily to deploy and configure ( without EAP ) .

Both PPTP and L2TP have advantages and disadvantages:

PPTP can merely run on top of IP webs, whereas L2TP can utilize other protocols such as Internetwork Packet Exchange ( IPX ) and Systems Network Architecture ( SNA ) .

PPTP does non back up dial-in hallmark protocols such as Distant Authentication Dial-In User Service ( RADIUS ) and Terminal Access Controller Access Control Systems ( TACACS+ ) , whereas L2TP does.

PPTP is an encoding protocol, whereas L2TP is non, so it lacks security.

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol ( L2TP ) is a protocol used to burrow informations communications traffic between two sites over the Internet. L2TP is frequently used in tandem with IPSec ( which acts as a security bed ) to procure the transportation of L2TP informations packages over the Internet. Unlike PPTP, a VPN execution utilizing L2TP/IPSec requires a shared key or the usage of certifications.

A VPN is a cheap effectual manner of constructing a private web. The usage of the Internet as the chief communications channel between sites is a cost effectual option to expensive chartered private lines. The costs to a corporation include the web hallmark hardware and package used to authenticate users and any extra mechanisms such as hallmark items or other secure devices. The comparative easiness, velocity, and flexibleness of VPN purveying in comparing to leased lines makes VPNs an ideal pick for corporations who require flexibleness. For illustration, a company can set the figure of sites in the VPN harmonizing to altering demands.

There are several possible disadvantages with VPN usage. The deficiency of Quality of Service ( QoS ) direction over the Internet can do packet loss and other public presentation issues. Adverse web conditions that occur outside of the private web is beyond the control of the VPN decision maker. For this ground, many big corporations wage for the usage of sure VPNs that use a private web to warrant QoS. Vendor interoperability is another possible disadvantage as VPN engineerings from one seller may non be compatible with VPN engineerings from another seller. Neither of these disadvantages have prevented the widespread credence and deployment of VPN engineering.

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