This paper using access to work participation rate as an indicator of labour market examines gender inequality in 25 districts of Gujarat State.
It also focuses on variations in male and female work participation rate from census 2001 to census 2011 by using index, growth rates and sex parity index. The findings of the study are: work participation rate of females is much lesser than in the work participation rate of males and it has declined in 2011. It shows higher the proportion of gender inequality in labour market of Gujarat State.
Gender inequality, district wise work participation rates of males and females, labour market.
JEL Classification: J4, O2, O4
Gujarat state is considered as one of the developed state of India. Gujarat economy has revealed a constantly increasing rate of growth during the last five decades. Development is a process of amplifying choices and opportunities for all people. Development cannot be achieved unless women contribute equally in the development process. Such a process becomes unfair and inequitable if women are not included from its benefits.
Developing countries like India face higher the rate of gender inequality. Traditional male-controlled norms have downgraded women to secondary status within the household and workplace. This severely affects women’s health, financial status, education, and political involvement. Gujarat is no exception to it. Women’s participation in the labour market is not measured sufficiently. “According to the ILO’s Global Employment Trends 2013 report, India’s labour force participation rate for women fell from just over 37 per cent in 2004-05 to 29 per cent in 2009-10.
Out of 131 countries with available data, India ranks 11th from the bottom in female labour force participation” (ILO News Room: 30 Feb 2013). According to Census 2011, “the workforce participation rate for females is 25.51% against 53.26% for males in India. The rural sector has a better female workforce participation rate of 30.02% compared with 53.03% for males whereas for urban sector. The participation rate of females trails at 15.44% against 53.76% for males. 41.1% of female main and marginal workers are agricultural labourers, 24.0% are cultivators, and 5.7% are households.” The rest of the paper presents a literature review which contains India as well as the state/district perspective. Further, work participation rate male/ females of census 2001 and census 2011 shows variations. This study finds that gender inequality in the labour market has increased in Gujarat State.
The existing literature review has been mentioned in terms of gender inequality in labour market in the context of India and in particular states/ district respectively.
Muniyoor K (2014) in his study analysed to pinpoint emerging issues and dynamics in various segments of the Indian labour market. Data sources and the estimation procedures used with employment data, it was based on unit-level data of NSS 61st and 66th rounds conducted from June 2004 to July 2005 and June 2009 to July 2010, respectively. The researcher estimated number of persons engaged in various economic activities and job search activities rose by about 2 million, increased from 467 million in 2004/05 to 469 million in 2009/10. The study showed that slightly above 19 million rural female were out of the workforce. Mohanty S., et al. (2014) studied the dynamics of gender gap in wages of salaried class worker Indian states. Their paper recognized the need to study the extent to which gender plays a role in determining wage. On the basis of principal component analysis they underlined certain broad conclusions in Indian context. They concluded that skills, education etc. that may influence market demand for female workers did not have a strong bearing on gender gap in wages in the salaried class. Labour supply variables related to health and demographic differentials such as prevalence of anaemia, proportion of women in reproductive age, mean age of marriage did not have a bearing on gender gap in wages in the salaried sector.
The level of decision-making power of women did not have a significant bearing on the gender gap in wages. Labour supplies related to the participation of women in the workforce have some bearing on the gender gap. Arora R. (2012) examined gender inequality, economic development and globalization in the different states of India. Particularly, it examined whether gender inequality differs across the Indian states and whether it was lower in more open and globalized states. It also examined gender inequality in the major states of India and builds the Gender Inequality Index. It examined whether in the high percapita income states gender inequality was low, and whether ‘open states were more gender-friendly than other states which were less open. The findings of the study were the states which lie in the southern and western part of the country have lower gender inequality that the states in the northern region. The states with medium gender inequality were west Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Haryana and Punjab. The author concluded that gender growth relationship at the country level has been determined, gender globalization links remain uncertain. Their result showed that while overall percapita was associated with lower gender inequality and low percapita income in states with high inequality; in some states high percapita income co-existed with high gender inequality.
Chittedi, K. R.&Dommati D. (2012) conducted their case study in Karimnagardistrict in Andhra Pradesh. The study showed that female work participation rate had declined and season wise irrigation facility is the main factor that determined the employment and wages of agricultural labour. The conclusion of the study was that there were wide variations in agricultural wages between mandals. The author suggested that to remove sex discrimination in wages there should be equal pay for men and women for equal work. Mitra, A., & Singh, P. (2006) in their study on‘Human Capital Attainment and Female Labour Force Participation–The Kerala Puzzle’ concluded that the although the state of Kerala in India ranked first in terms of female literacy rate and Human development index, the state presented a puzzling scenario as evidenced by the high employment rates for both men and women. Discrimination in a male dominated labour market limits access to and upward mobility of women in professional jobs. They suggested that in order to solve this paradox of high human capital attainment and chronic unemployment among educated females in Kerala, colleges and universities need to change their curriculum in order to integrate technical skills that are needed in the labour market.
The above-mentioned literature study shows that gender inequality in the labour market is seen like in employment and wages of agricultural women, higher percapita income state or lower percapita income state in Indian perspective and as well as in particular state/district. The present paper seeks to examine gender inequality in work participation rate in 25 districts of Gujarat state and whether has it increased or declined.
To study work participation rate variations in 25 districts of Gujarat from census 2001 to census 2011.
To evaluate gender inequality in work participation rate by sex gap & sex parity index inall districts of Gujarat state.
The present study is based on secondary sources of data. Secondary data were collected from census of Gujarat 2011 & 2001 (PCA). To study gender inequality in the labour market, work participation rate has been selected as an indicator. Work participation rates of males/ females statistics have been taken from census 2011 & 2001. The study contains 25 districts of Gujarat states namely Kachchh, Banaskantha, Patan, Mahesana, Sabarkantha, Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Surendranagar, Rajkot, Jamnagar, Porbandar, Junagadh, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Anand, Kheda, Panchmahal, Dahod, Vadodara, Narmada, Bharuch, Dang, Navsari, Valsad, Surat. To analyse the data index and percent growth rate have been used. The formula for index and percent growth rate has been given below. For ease in computation process MS-EXCEL has been used.
Index = [current year (2011)/ base year (2001) *100].
The formula for percent growth rate is
The study finds that males and females work participation rate in Gujarat state were 54.9 and 27.9 respectively in census 2001. The figures for the same rate of males and females were 57.2 and 23.4 respectively in the 2011 census. It shows that 27% of males work participation was higher than females work participation and it has increased in 2011 by 34%. The study also finds that all districts of Gujarat state male work participation are higher than female work participation in the year of 2011.
To conclude, the female work participation rate has declined in 2011 census compare to 2001 census in districts of Gujarat, Except Bhavnagar and Dang District. Gender inequality was seen at 27% in 2001 and 34 % in 2011. It shows that 7 % of gender inequality has increased in the labour market of Gujarat as per the statistics. The rate of female participation has much declined since male work participation rate has increased and gender inequality in the labour market has been seen in all districts of Gujarat state as per 2011 census.
Chittedi, K. R., &Dommati, D. (2012). Employment and Wages of Agricultural Women Labor: A Case Study of Karimnagar District in Andhra Pradesh. IUP Journal of Agricultural Economics, 9(1), 45-68.
Arora, R. U. (2012). GENDER INEQUALITY, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, AND GLOBALIZATION: A STATE LEVEL ANALYSIS OF INDIA. Journal of Developing Areas, 46(1), 147-164.
Mohanty, S. S., Bisht, M., &Mohapatra, P. (2014). Gender Wage Gap among Salaried Workers in India: Results of a Principal Component Analysis of State Level Statistics. Economic Affairs: A Quarterly Journal of Economics, 59(2), 175-190. doi:10.5958/J.0976-4666.59.2.017
Krishna, M. (2014). Employment in India. World Economics, 15(4), 19-44.
Mitra, A., & Singh, P. (2006). Human Capital Attainment and Female Labor Force Participation–The Kerala Puzzle. Journal of Economic Issues (Association For Evolutionary Economics), 40(3), 779-798.
Singh, D., & Vinay, D. (2013). Gender participation in Indian agriculture: An ergonomic evaluation of occupational hazard of farm and allied activities. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment & Biotechnology, 6(1), 157-168.
Planning Analysis: Calculating Growth Rates
Gender equity issues in India(2013): foundation for sustainable development
www.fsdinternational.org/country/india/weissueschapter-4 participation in India
Census 2001 of Gujarat (PCA)
Census 2011 of Gujarat
Gupta, S. P. (2008). STATISTICAL METHODS. Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi, p. 523.