History and Legacy of Philosophy

Philosophy is a rational attempt that raises questions, understands them and gives responses to it. Philosophy literally means “love of wisdom” is the investigation of general and crucial issues concerning matters, for example, presence, information, values, reason, psyche, and language. The term was most likely coined by Pythagoras (c. 570– 495 BCE).Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation. It is a conceptual discipline of which methods are introspective, reflective and aperiodic in nature. Philosophy is universal, consistent, objective and distinct.

This branch of science deals with both synthetic and analytical approach. This branch is also fundamentally argumentative. It is not confined to any historical period or era, cultures, socio political systems or any particular religious affiliations.

There are 3 main branches of philosophy:

It is a branch that deals with the question of knowledge. It is derived from the Greek words “episteme” which means knowledge and logos which mean words/speech from the Greek words episteme) is basically the branch of philosophy which deals with questions of the sources/origins of knowledge.

According to this branch “If the foundations of your knowing are not justified experience becomes unjustified completely”.

Metaphysics is further divided into 2 branches:

Metaphysics deals with and identifies relationships existing if any.

It is the second branch of philosophy. It deals with the essence of value and is divided into two branches:

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with nature, source, limitation and validity of knowledge. It deals specifically with theories of knowledge, systematic efforts to explain the nature and content of thought and to describe the process by which humans acquire reliable knowledge.  Epistemology is the study of knowledge but it necessarily does not imply that it will be about the sources of knowledge.

There are four sources of knowledge.

It is related to experience. There has been a strong epistemological tradition solely based on human experience. Empericists argue that it is unreasonable to set a goal of absolute and “all inclusive knowledge”.

They insist that human knowledge Is attained from experience that is it can be posteriori or post experience. John locke was one of the emepricist he claimed that “mind is a blank slate” , he further explains that when a human is born he has a blank mind as soon as he starts interacting with people then he starts building up connections with the world.

Rationalism means to attain knowledge that is absolute and certain. Rationalists start with the propositions that are self-evident. Their systems are derived from ideas that are claimed to be clear, distinct, and certain to the human mind. The rationalists argue that since the mind comprehends principles, the principles must therefore “exist” that is they must be true or real.

Rene Descartes, a seventeenth century mathematician and philosopher made a strong case for the approach to rational knowledge. He considered the knowledge produced by the senses, but because he admitted that the senses can be deceived, he was forced to conclude that sense data is unreliable. Plato and Descartes both claimed that true knowledge is already within us in the form of ideas, which we don’t acquire but they are innate.

It is the “sixth-sense” or the gut feeling. It is a subjective experience that is within you only and is not empirically verifiable that ceases the relationship between the subject and the object.

It presupposes that knowledge is possessed by someone or something outside the individual.it stresses the knowledge rather than the method by which knowledge is attained.

Philosophy can be divided into 3 eras:

It has its basis in metaphysics and was based on greek philosophers mainly Socrates, Aristotle and Plato.

Socrates put forward initiating theories about the customary world, learning, and the heavenly creatures. Things took a more good turn with Socrates, with his steady tending to which challenges distinctive nationals of Athens to give a record of their characteristics. He experimented with his students by making them sit in a class and and made them answer as many questions as possiblein order to understand the way they thought and believed.

Plato gave his concept forward by the perspective of “allligary of the cave” in which he explained that the people stuck in the cave will only be able to see the shadows of the person behind them rather than the person infront of him. Acoording to plato idea is something that cannot be constructed nor destroyed. This concept of objective idealism gave the idea of “know thyself”which leads to the state of harmonization and that leads to the state of utopia.

After about the fourth or fifth Century A.D., Europe entered the so called Dark Ages, during which little or no new idea was created. By the eleventh Century, however, there was a restored bloom of thought, both in Christian Europe and in Muslim and Jewish Middle East. The most of the philosophers of this time were essentially worried about demonstrating the presence of God and with accommodating Christianity/Islam with the established philosophy of Greece. This period additionally observed the foundation of the main colleges, which was an essential factor in the subsequent advancement of philosophy.

Anselum and Augustine were the two main philosophers of this era. Augustine gave the idea od God and also claimed that one must make use of religion to acquire wisdom. During this time period the authority mainly belonged to the church and the priests.

Augustine is one of the main scholars to have guessed about the idea of time. Time, he says something that everybody encounters and is personally acquainted with. We feel the progression of time for the duration of the day, we take note of the timeframes that it takes for things to occur, we can recognize short and long measures of time. In any case, once we endeavor to clarify precisely what time is, we are at a misfortune. There are two fundamental ways that we can see the idea of time. To start with, we may imagine that it is goal, and part of the outer idea of the world itself. Past, present and future are substances. Second, we may consider time simply abstract, existing just as a result of our brain.

Anselum was also one of the main philosphers in that era. According to him that state of utopia is reached by following the orders of the society in order to live a harmonised life. He also claims that religion and rationality go side by side.

The modern philosophical era marks its beginning from the beginning of the 17th century till the early 20th centuries. It is associated with modernity.

At this time people started to move away from religion due to their own beliefs and had reasons for it. Berkeley gave the concept of subjective idealism which state that something will only exist in the mind of someone when he perceives it. Berkeley’s work is his improvement of immaterialism, a hypothesis in epistemology which clarifies that people don’t acquire learning about material items. Rather, the main information we have is of our thoughts regarding objects, for example, the sensations we see. Our view of a material protest is the whole of our insight about it, regardless of whether our observation is genuinely illustrative of any genuine material thing.

And according to other important philosopher, schilmarkher religion is not the answer to everything because god has given us rational and thinking powers we are free to use them and follow anything which we think is correct.

Taking everything into account, philosophy is a part of science that reviews the truth and presence and the learning of how the world functions. The five parts of philosophy clarify how everything has point of view and how each easily overlooked detail assumes a noteworthy job on the planet. The history and heritage of philosophy as a part of science clarifies how classical philosophy depends on Greek folklore, while medieval philosophy depends on the Middle Ages and has its premise in religion. lastly, modern philosophy is based on thoughts and how new thoughts help us in making descions.

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