Does the study contain a hypothesis or hypotheses?
Engel et al.’s paper “Patient understanding of emergency department discharge instructions: where are knowledge deficits greatest?” has one hypothesis. The study made assumptions that most of the respondents failed to fathom the discharge instructions given to them, which led to a deficit in knowledge and would be common for information relating to post-ED care (Engel, Buckley, Forth, McCarthy, Ellison, Schmidt, Adams, 2012).
Is each hypothesis clearly worded and concise?
The hypothesis is clearly worded and concise. The hypothesis clearly explains what the study has hypothesized in a simple and straightforward manner. The hypothesis should clearly establish the two variables. In this study, the hypothesis introduced two variables, one being the failure of patients to fathom the instructions given to them after discharge, and the other being the existence of knowledge gaps with regard to post-ED care (Engel et al., 2012).
Is the hypothesis written in a declarative sentence?
The hypothesis is written in a declarative sentence. A declarative hypothesis highlights the association between the variables that the researcher believes will emerge, and this is clear in this study. The two variables which the researchers expected to emerge are that the majority of patients would fail to understand the instructions provided after their discharge and that there would be knowledge deficits more so with regard to post-ED care. The hypothesis is written in a simple declarative manner (Engel et al., 2012).
Is each hypothesis directly tied to the study problem?
The hypothesis is directly related to the study problem. The study sought to address the problem of patients’ knowledge deficit. This was in relation to the information on their discharge instructions. The hypothesis is related to this subject because it talks about a majority of patients failing to fathom the discharge instructions given to them and the knowledge deficits in information relating to post-ED care (Engel et al., 2012).
If there is a clearly identified study framework, is each hypothesis derived from this framework?
The study had a succinctly identified study framework. The study indicates that interviews were conducted through the phone and were made 24-36 hours after the patients were discharged. The hypothesis is derived from the study framework given that the questions asked to the interviewee were to do with the instructions given to them after ED discharge. The study protocol is also included in the study framework and describes how the study would proceed, including the ethical issues of seeking permission from the hospital authorities (Engel et al., 2012).
Does each hypothesis contain the population and at least two variables?
The hypothesis of this study has two variables that are clearly outlined. Furthermore, the hypothesis in this study contains a population. The study identified patients who had been discharged from the ED twelve months prior to the conduct of the study. The study would later narrow down the population by excluding patients who had more than one diagnosis (Engel et al., 2012).
Is it apparent that each hypothesis can be empirically tested?
The hypothesis of this study can be empirically tested. The study collected data in conformity with the study design and performed data analysis to get results to the empirical tests. The empirical tests showed that many patients leave the ED without adequate knowledge. The study used scientific procedures for collecting evidence. The evidence was later put on empirical tests, analyzed, and results derived. Specifically, the study found that the knowledge gap was mainly in-home care and return to ED instructions (Engel et al., 2012).
Does each hypothesis contain only one prediction?
The hypothesis in this case study has one prediction. The study notes that by taking note of the particular areas where gaps exist, it will be possible to formulate and implement corrective strategies. It is hoped that the intervention strategies will promote the level of communication available to patients after discharge and ensure that discharged patients will be in a position to adhere to the instructions and manage their own care at home (Engel et al., 2012).
Engel, K. G., Buckley, B. A., Forth, V. E., McCarthy, D. M., Ellison, E. P., Schmidt, M. J., & Adams, J. G. (2012). Patient understanding of emergency department discharge instructions: where are knowledge deficits greatest?. Academic Emergency Medicine, 19(9), E1035-E1044.