Day by day pollution level increasing that not only affecting human health but also affecting to nature. Global warming is the biggest challenge in front of world. Diseases like asthma, heart disease, diabetes increasing rapidly in peoples
At present, the Indian pollution control board has made the fitness certificate as compulsory for public and commercial vehicles once in a year to control the pollution. Pollution under Control (PUC) certificate for every three months is mandatory for all group vehicles from the date of
registration. In order to control the air pollution, the amount of air pollution needs to be monitored and vehicles responsible for polluting should be identified. IoT is become helpful in cities for monitoring air pollution from vehicles and also data related to the amount of pollution on different roads of a city can be gathered and analyzed.
The system designed to monitor the vehicle exhaust. The exhaust detection and controlling system is discussed in this paper where a real time detection of exhaust and its comparison with standards takes place.
The cost effective system is designed with the help of RFID Tags and PIC Microcontroller. System uses sensors like MQ6. The vehicle exhaust data is collected from sensor which is part of inspection system unit transfer to control system unit. Control system unit collects data from all inspection system Unit and then transmit it to server side unit. Server side unit store all the data in database using IOT Technology.
The objective of this project is to monitoring and detect polluted vehicle with its range of pollution using RFID which helps to control pollution and reduce global warming by using Wi-Fi.
Fig.1 Proposed system for Vehicle Emission Monitoring
In this project we are going to build a pollution monitoring system using a RFID reader, PIC microcontroller, RF Module, GSM 900, LCD and Wi-Fi module ESP8266. System consists of two parts:
RFID tags will set on signal. When a vehicle stops at signal RFID reader will read the RFID tag number and will find the vehicle number and detail from the list. Then it will read sensor output from inspection system side module and it will send this information to control system module. Control system check polluted data are within limit or exceed the limit. If pollution is exceed from limited value it will send alert message to vehicle owner It will also send the RFID tag number and gas sensor output to the Things peak cloud . The received data will be stored in real time and will be available for future analysis. This system will be installed at different locations in the city.
The EM-18 RFID Reader module operating at 125 kHz is an inexpensive solution for your RFID based application. The Reader module comes with an on-chip antenna and can be powered up with a 5V power supply. Power-up the module and connect the transmit pin of the module to receive pin of your microcontroller. Show your card within the reading distance and the card number is thrown at the output. Optionally the module can be configured for also a Wigand output.
We have used 16 character by two line LCD to display various messages. This LCD has pin number 1 ground pin number 2 vcc , pin number 3 contrast , pin number 4 register select , number 5 read and write , pin number 6 is enable pin and pin number 7 to 14 are data pins , pin number 15 is backlight positive number 16 is backlight negative. Contrast pin is connected to ground with 1K resistor to generate pointed contrast voltage. Pin number 4 is connected PORTD and pin number 6 is connected to pin PORTD, 7 of microcontroller. Pin number 5 is connected to ground since we are writing into LCD and not reading from it.
LCD data pins are connected to port B, backlight positive is connected to a 5 volt dc and backlight negative is connected to ground.
We have used MQ 6 sensor to sense carbon content of the air. This sensor consists of a metallic plate coated with a particular chemical and a heater. Its surface resistance changes proportional to the amount of gas present vicinity. This sensor is connected in voltage divider circuit. Whenever gas is present its surface resistance drops and hence it generates more voltage which is proportional to the amount of gas.
The ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module is a self-contained SOC withintegrated IP protocol stack that can give any microcontroller access to your Wi-Fi network. Wi-Fi module is capable of either hosting an application or offloading all Wi-Fi networking functions from another application processor. Every ESP8266 module comes pre-programmed with an AT command set firmware, meaning, we can simply connect to the Microcontroller device. The ESP8266 module is an extremely cost effective board.
GSM/GPRS Modem-RS232 is built with Dual Band GSM/GPRS. The baud rate of thedevice is configurable from 9600-115200 using AT command. It is suitable for SMS, Voice aswell as data transfer application. The onboard Regulated Power supply allows you to connectwide range unregulated power supply. Using this modem, you can make audio calls, SMS, ReadSMS; attend the incoming calls and internet etc. through simple AT commands.
RF transmitters are electronic devices that createcontinuously varying electric current, encodesine waves, and broadcast radio waves. RFtransmitters use oscillators to create sine waves,the simplest and smoothest form of continuouslyvarying waves, which contain information suchas audio and video. Modulators encode thesesign wives and antennas broadcast them as radiosignals. There are several ways to encode ormodulate this information, including amplitudemodulation (AM) and frequency modulation(FM). The ST-TX01-ASK is an ASK Hybridtransmitter module. The ST-TX01-ASK isdesigned by the Saw Resonator, with an effective low cost, small size, and simple-to usefor designing.
The proposed system is used to monitor and control vehicular air pollution using IoT. This system is cost effective solution for vehicle emission problem.
It is capable to measure the value of pollutants emitted by the vehicle continuously and display it on 16×2 alphanumeric LCD display. Also if the pollutant level exceeds the prescribed value, then a SMS will be sent to the vehicle owner and respective authority to take necessary disciplinary action.
I wish to express sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to respected mentor and Project guide, Dr. A. N. Gaikwadfor him in depth and enlightening support with kindness. He has given me not only technical advice but also encouragement. It is his encouragement and constructive criticism, which motivated to strive harder for excellence.
I am also grateful to P.G. Co-ordinator, Prof. P. A. More for her guidance, cooperation and making available the necessary facilities need for time to time. I also take the opportunity to thank our Principal, Dr. A. M. Kate who has always supported us in our endeavor.
I take opportunity to thank my parents for their support. My dream of further studies would not have been possible without their support.
Last but not the least I would like to thanks my friends for their valuable guidance and support.