Isonicotinic acid hydrazide – Drug for Tuberculosis

Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) is a wonder drug for tuberculosis which is one of the top pharmaceuticals that has changed the world, but overdose of isoniazid can lead to poisoning incidents, even death. Therefore, controlling the dose of INH for sufferers in clinical chemistry is very important. Hence, Wu and co-workers proposed a novel MIP-ECL sensor based on Ru(bpy)3 2+-Au nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ru-AuNP-MCNT) composites for selectively detection of INH. The MIP is synthesized through electrochemical copolymerization of acrylamide, N, N-methylene diacrylamide and INH as functional monomer, cross linking agent and template by cyclic voltammetry (CV).

During the measurement process INH could be selectively adsorbed via the molecularly imprinted sites and the adsorbed INH is detected by its great enhancing effect on the ECL reaction of Ru(bpy)32+ fixed on the AuNP-MCNT-GCE electrode. As a result, the method can be successfully applied to the measurement of INH in human urine and pharmaceutical samples.

Schematic representation of MIP ECL fabrication process and ECL mechanisms of Ru(bpy)32+ and INH on MIP Ru-AuNP-MCNT-GCE.

Reproduced from [4] with permission from the royal society of chemistry.

Creatinine (Cre) is the final product of the metabolism of creatine in mammals, that its concentration is less affected by the dietary changes, therefore the sensitive and selective detection of ultra-trace amount of creatinine in blood and urine is a fairly reliable indicator in the clinical evaluation of renal function, the severity of kidney damage, muscular disorders and thyroid malfunction. Hence, Babamiri et al, developed a stable and water-soluble Ni nanoclusters (Ni NCs) capped with a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a novel photoluminescent nanomaterial for highly sensitive and selective determination of creatinine in the presence of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP).

In this study, the uniform magnetic graphene oxide (GO-Fe3O4) MIP film was established on the surface of ITO electrode by sol-gel method using creatinine as template and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as cross-linker, also aluminum chloride was introduced to MIP for increase the binding affinity of the creatinine into cavities. During the ECL process, tripropylamine (TPA) was oxidized, and Ni NCs-embedded in MIP got the energy to generate excited state Ni NCs* for light emission. In the presence of creatinine, the imprinted cavities were occupied by creatinine, the ECL emission of Ni NCs on the MIP-modified electrode surface was efficiently quenched and the responses of the proposed sensing decreased with the increasing of creatinine concentration. In this study, the combination of molecular imprinting (MIP GO-Fe3O4) system with ECL assay in the presence of Ni NCs as a new type of superior luminophore candidate can be developed for design of ultrasensitive sensors, biosensors and other measuring devices.

Nickel ion because of its toxicity and poor degradation in the bodies of various living systems is considered a potential carcinogenic poison. In general, a long-term exposure to trace amounts of nickel has harmful effects on the skin and soft tissue. Therefore, sensitive, selective and rapid methods for determination of Ni2+ ions must be developed. Hence, Yang et al. developed a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) electrochemiluminescence (MIP-ECL) assay for the highly sensitive and selective measurement of ultra-trace levels of Ni2+.

In this study, the complex Ni2+- dimethylglyoxime (Ni-DMG) was applied as the template molecule to co-polymerize with the functional monomer of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) to construct the MIP film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by electropolymerization and then acted as a mimetic enzyme to catalyse the oxidisation of luminol to enhance the ECL emission. After the elution of the complex from MIP, and rebinding of the Ni-DMG the ECL intensities produced by the luminol-H2O2 ECL system on the MIP-modified electrode surface increased with increased concentration of the Ni-DMG complex. Therefore, highly sensitive determination of Ni2+ through a catalytic reaction was achieved.

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